Compare legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia, and Latin America)



Africa: Legacies of Colonizations

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Before 1880, Africa was independent (10% of the continent was under foreign control). Most of the countries were in Northern Sahara and along the coast lines of Africa. However, by 1914, countries in Europe started the rapid "Scramble for Africa." However, two countries maintained their independence under these chaos. Ethiopia and Liberia.

  • the scramble for Africa began (1875-1900), Most of Africa was colonized by the European empires
  • Almost all of Africa was colonized by various countries of Europe, the areas they occupied were determined in the Berlin Conference in the late 1800s (No African Leaders were present at the Berlin Conference. European countries just simply divided the continent into whatever pieces they wanted)
  • Although not directly involved in the war, because colonies in Africa were very valuable for the European powers, they were the target of some of the World war one and two aggressions.
    • In the First war, the German colonies in South Africa were the target of many allied aggression, as they wanted to overtake them. They also wanted to destroy the German foothold in Africa
  • In the north African colony of Algeria, occupied by the French, there were approximately two million french people settled in Algeria.
  • France did not want to lose Africa as its colony, and as a result of its concentrated efforts to hold on to its colony in Algeria; it lost most of its other African colonies.
  • Because the colony of Algeria had been left alone for so many years during the wars and was left to take care of itself they became resentful of the French now trying to reassert their power over them.
  • The Algerian War of Liberation began in 1954, the Algerians fighting to boot the French out of Algeria and the French fighting to try to maintain one of their last African colonies. The bloody war ended in 1962 with the Algerians gaining independence, yet at the price of a massive bloodshed
  • Nationalistic feelings resulted in discontent and more of a drive to achieve independence in the African colonies
  • Although some of the independence movements were able to take place somewhat peacefully such as in Ghana, others occurred relatively violently such as the independence movement in Kenya
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Africa: Patterns of economic development

  • European states still controlled most of Africa
  • African countries weren't able to develop because of the World Wars. <Allies tried to bomb German colonies to weaken German advances and supply in trade>
  • The Great Depression caused serious problems in the economy of Africa because they were controlled by most of the Europeans and they suffered as well <Africa was very dependent on European powers economically. The impact of the depression caused the Africans to have high unemployment rates>
  • Africa was controlled by colonizers so it had no choice in where they were trading to and how much of their supply was given.
  • Wars for independence occurred as the apartheid continued. Apartheid is an extreme segregation.
  • South Africa is one of the world's richest sources of gold and diamonds. Between 1960s and 90s, the white government of South Africa turned the country in to the wealthiest, most modern, and most industrialized on the continent. <Africa had an advantage on natural resources, but most of them were under the control of European powers>
  • Most of African nations are less developed countries, have the world's lowest per capital incomes and have very little industrial development until today in 2009. <Face large foreign debts, falling commodity prices and rising import cost>

PROBLEMS:
1. Dictatorship: Many of Africa's governments degenerated into dictatorship ship. EX. Idi Amin of Uganda.
2. Corruption: Unlawful systems of patronage, nepotism, and graft.
3. The Cold War: African nations became the pawns in the global chess game between USSR and US
4. Rapid population growth and food shortages.
5. HIV and AIDS
6. Lack of cultural or linguistic unity (When the European countries divided Africa, they didn't think about any cultural and language heritages) Therefore, inter tribal and inter ethnic wars occurred.















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Asia: Legacies of Colonialism

In 1858, the East

India Company, under the mandate of Queen Victoria began to impose their rule over India. Under the control of the East India company and British administration.
  • The first colony to be freed was the Philippines from the US during World War II. They were promised independence from the US.
  • India and Pakistan was next on the list. Great Britain handed over power freely. <Indian and Pakistani independence was granted on August 15, 1947> Leaders like Mohandas Mahatma Ghandi helped the independence process faster.
  • Vietnam fought for their independence (Ho Chi Minh). They won the war against the United States. (Defoliants caused a lot of casualties, like deforestation, and birth defec

ts)
  • Built extensive railway and telegram system. Constructed new canals harbors and irrigation systems
  • Indian independence movements had been in motion, although the World War II slowed down the process
  • India was split between the Muslims and the Hindus

Asia: Patterns of economic development.

Among the nations of the developing world, Asia is the most successful in building economy and government. Regional organizations such as ASEAN (1967) boosted economic, social and cultural developments.

  • In the mid 1920s, parts in Asia was affected by the Great Depression. Japan's economy was going down, China and the Philippines was slightly protected. China was not dependent on foreign trade and the Philippines had support from the United States. However, Japan still maintains a high status in the industry productions, alongside the United States
  • When Mao Ze dong took over China(near the 1950s), efforts of improving China's economy by developing plans such as the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). However these movements were NOT successful.
  • In the Cultural Revolution, Mao killed off all the intellectuals and had uneducated people take over in most of China
  • In India, (1996-1977 and 1980-1984), under the rule of Indira Gandhi, they maintained a good political system, however they faced poverty, overpopulation conflicts and wars.



Similarities:

Politically: Both countries got back their political rights (Had their own Rulers whether they were successful for not) They eventually became independent.
Economic: They both experienced Economic struggles because their economy was too dependent on their colonists (Or their natural resources were destroyed)


Differences:

Politically: Eventhough Africa and Asia both got their freedom back, it didn't mean that they were both equally successful. Africa was not as successful as Asia because of the problems mentioned above.
1. Dictatorship: Many of Africa's governments degenerated into dictatorship ship. EX. Idi Amin of Uganda.
2. Corruption: Unlawful systems of patronage, nepotism, and graft.
3. The Cold War: African nations became the pawns in the global chess game between USSR and US
4. Rapid population growth and food shortages.
5. HIV and AIDS
6. Lack of cultural or linguistic unity (When the European countries divided Africa, they didn't think about any cultural and language heritages) Therefore, inter tribal and inter ethnic wars occurred.
On the other hand, Asia was able to develop quickly compared to African Countries.
Economically: Africans were left with nothing because the European countries never taught them how to run the economy. Also, their natural resources were all taken. However, Asian countries established bond between each other which helped them to establish strong economy.






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