Unit Objectives

  • Patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas, 1830-1914.
  • The student understands how modern nationalism affected European politics and society.
  • Identify major characteristics of 19th-century European nationalism and analyze connections between nationalist ideology and the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements.
  • Analyze causes of the revolutions of 1848 and why these revolutions failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives.
  • Describe the unification of Germany and Italy and analyze why these movements succeeded.
  • Assess the importance of nationalism as a source of tension and conflict in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.

There is beauty in a flag!

1. Setting the Stage: Establish prior knowledge of Europe in the early 1800's.

2. Congress of Vienna 1814-1815

Welcome to the Congress of Vienna! We have invited you here from all across Europe to make peace after the Napoleonic Wars. As you can tell from our Congress map, Napoleon made quite a mess of our continent. He shattered borders and basically called Europe, France. Now, we need to work together to recreate our countries and forge a lasting peace in Europe. Here is some background info to get you started on this hefty challenge:

The major powers in Europe by the late 1700s consisted of Britain, France, Prussia, Austria and Russia. Poland, Ottoman Empire and the Netherlands were powers in decline. Most of central Europe was divided into small states who could be dominated by the major powers. French support for Poland had previously limited Russia, Prussia and Austria in their desire to take Polish territory. When war with France broke out in the early 1790s, Poland was divided between the three powers: Prussia seized West and North Poland, Austria annexed South Poland and Russia took East Poland. French military successes in the late 1790s resulted in France annexing the Austrian Netherlands and Palatinate. By 1803, Napoleon had added the Italian areas of Piedmont and Parma to his empire. A series of French victories from 1805 to 1809 over Austria, Prussia and Russia resulted in the total restructuring of central Europe. The Netherlands, Munster, Oldenburg, Hanover and Tuscany were all incorporated into the French Empire. Croatia and Tyrol were taken from Austria with Croatia being annexed into the French Empire. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw was created by taking South Poland from Austria and both West and North Poland from Prussia. After Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812, Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia formed a coalition that defeated Napoleon in 1814 and again in 1815.


There are two maps. The first map is the landscape of the Napoleonic Empire at its greatest height. The map is separated intottwo sections; 1. French Territories 2. French Dependents. Make sure to look at the key. The second map is the outcome of the Congress of Vienna. For the simulation focus on the first map for the time being.

For the purpose of clarity in this simulation, the area that constituted Poland just prior to the French Revolution has been identified as the Grand Dutchy of Warsaw. You will need to create make believe lines that will separate Warsaw into four sections of North, South, East and West. The boundaries of these regions are based on how Poland was divided by Prussia, Austria and Russia in 1793 and 1795. Similarly, to facilitate the simulation, some of the small German and Italian states have been consolidated and labeled with regional names.


Students will be divided into small work groups.Each group will receive a Map of Europe and an Options Sheet, listing the various choices available for consideration at the Congress of Vienna. Each group will consider the various options in light of the four goals listed below and come to a consensus decision as to which options should be selected. Information concerning the history, language, religion, ethnic composition and economic development of areas can be obtained from the instructor. Only the last item is really relevant to the goals listed below. Decisions will be recorded on the Options Sheet and notes can be written. The instructor will select a member of the group to report the group decisions and the logic behind them. Other members of the class will be called upon to critique the decisions.

1. Reward victorious allies Russia, Prussia and Austria. (Britain is rewarded with some islands in the Caribbean.)

2. Reestablish a "Balance of Power" between the five major powers: Russia, Austria, Prussia, Britain and France.

3. Provide for the containment of France in the future.

4. Reestablish the French monarchy and provide for good relations with the new French government.

Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 Overview


1. Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries
2. Restore a “balance of power” between European countries
3. Restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquest

Member States: Prussia, Russia, Austria, Britain and France


  • Scheduled to last 4 weeks; lasted 8 months
  • Decisions made in secret between “five great powers”
  • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria took the lead in decision-making
  • Distrust of goals of the French Revolution due to anarchy that ensued in France
  • Emphasized stability of laws

Containment of France

  • Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic became Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • 39 German states were loosely joined as German Confederation, dominated by Austria
  • Switzerland became an independent nation
  • Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy added Genoa
  • Allowed other European countries to contain France and prevent it from attacking/overpowering other nations.

Balance of Power

  • Did not want to over punish France out of fear of revenge or creating another superpower elsewhere in Europe
  • France maintained borders of 1790
  • France retained most overseas possessions, army and independent government
  • Europe had major powers, but no superpower.


  • Former kings should be restored to their thrones
  • Believed that monarchs would stabilize political relations among nations


  • Fair treatment overall of participating countries
  • First time ever that nations of a continent met to stabilize continent’s political affairs
  • Agreed to come to each other’s aid in case of threats to peace
  • Maintained peace for almost 50 years in Europe

For a visual representation check this out! http://tinyurl.com/b9atre
An excellent time line to give you an idea of the events progression over time. http://tinyurl.com/dmeth5
Connect the French Revolution to the Congress of Vienna through the eyes of a major French figure. http://tinyurl.com/c38fhd

Congress of Vienna Reflection

1. How may the delegates contain and make peace with France? Prevent future wars in Europe? Establish strong stable governments in Europe? How was this simulation different from the "Scrabble of Africa"?

2. Discuss outcomes of actual Congress of Vienna (maps): What is sovereignty? Diplomacy? Why were they made?


A. Watch the quick Mr. Spivey film on Balance of Power.
B. Watch the "interactive map" at "The-map-as-history.com" http://tinyurl.com/b9atre
C. Read p. 229-232 from your textbook.
D. Listen to the podcast about Nationalism.

After the fall of Napoleon's Empire, a new era emerged through the a course of multilateral negotiations. It was decided by European countries that it was unacceptable to have one nation rule with absolute power over the region. This took place during the Congress of Vienna. As a reminder you can watch the student-made video (optional) on this event or click on the link (optional) for more in-depth information. There were many decisions that were made throughout the proceeding but the one I want us to focus on is the idea of balance of power. What is balance of power? Let's think of it this way:

The idea of balance of power was very successful because Europe went through a period of relative peace for 60 years. This was unheard of for the region as wars between kingdoms and principalities were frequent. Before the Congress of Vienna, armies had traditionally hired mercenaries from other parts of Europe. Based on the balance of power that had arisen, nations started to build small armies that were made of local citizens, and a feeling of pride started to establish itself. Now spend the next ten minutes listening to excerpts of a lecture that was given by Dr.David Kalivas from Middlesex Community College.

Lesson 2 & 3: Planting the Seeds of a Nation State

1. Discuss: Lets go over the homework and focus on a) How did the Congress of Vienna change the state of Europe's political climate? b) What is the long term legacy of the Congress of Vienna?
2. Define: What is a nation state?
3a. Read: The following text explanations the concepts of conservatism, liberalism and radicalism. Your goal is to understand the main points of these philosophies.
external image msword.png Conservatism Liberalism Radicalism.doc
3b. Evaluation: Group Feedback on Presentations
4. Define: Conservatism, Liberalism and Radicalism
5. Create: Create skits using the definition above in reflecting on the modern day political climate of KIS.

6. Homework:
a) Reading: 233-238; Nationalism and Nation-Building (Take notes)
b) Write a 30 second to 1 minute speech that will discuss the following: Why do you think conservatism wins out more than liberalism/radicalism?
c) Bring text book!

Lesson 4: Other Influences of the Nation State

1. Debate: Why do you think conservatism wins out more than liberalism/radicalism?

2. Why did nationalism unite some countries and disunite others? Use Germany and Italy as a case study.

3. Write nationalistic poetry by taking on the perspective of a conservative, liberal or radical in the country of Germany, Italy, Russia or Austria. You must write your poem as if you are living in that time period. Also use historical facts within the poem. Your country and political affiliation will be assigned to you.
HW: Read and revise nationalistic poems.

4. Lecture

Step 1: Lecture
Even though the diversity of political competition was an important part of the creation of the nation state there were other factors that also contributed. Today we will look at these factors.

1. The Blank Slate Factor: When creating the nation state there was no rules to how it should be done. The only factor that had to be kept in mind was the social contract in which governing bodies and thoughts with power would have to agree with the new rules that would fuse the state together. How nations states were built come in a variety of packages. Think about the difference between the French (revolution against the social structure), Greeks (revolution against an occupier), Germany (nationalism and military might) and Italy (political "diplomacy" and conquering). Think of these nations as a phoenix in the fact that the old form died and out of the ashes a new form of political, cultural and ideology was created within the similar landscape.

2. Nationalism: We should all know this by now but basically it is the feeling of intense pride of your nations identity. Even though politically this is important, one can not over look how nationalism redefined the military. People were now fighting in the name of their country in which their relatives, friends, colleagues and respected superiors all resided. To fight with passion and purpose would change the worlds history forever.

3. Shift World Powers: After the Vienna conference in 1815 the major powers in the region were Austria, Russia, France, Great Brittain, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire. By the end of Prussian reunification into Deutschland (or modern day Germany) it was clear that the Great Britain and Germany were far ahead of the rest world wide (1871). Germany was an up and coming industrialized state with a strong very strong military. Great Britain was the oldest industrialized state and had a superior navy. Nations such as Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungarian Empire were having revolts within their borders because of the nationalism movement taking place throughout Europe. The idea of an Empire was slowly becoming more of a way to lose power instead of achieve it.

4. The Romantic Movement: You have all study the Romantic Movement in English class so let take a couple of minutes and think about what you learned. Now lets look at a couple characteristics of the time period and see how it (Step 2: Gain Deeper Meaning) effected history.

5. Last but not least the movement of Realism. To make this short, sweet and to the point life was hard in most cities. The Romantic Movement was pushed forward by the upper and middle classes. The lower class (majority of the people) had a much more objective outlook on life. For the first time the importance of the working class was starting to take hold. This would only make nationalism more potent as there was now a deeper meaning in life.

Homework: Now it is time to pull out your poems and make sure that you have all of these elements inside of them. You will now have time to edit your poems. In the next class we will be reading these poems to each other in small groups and you will be graded not only on the content but also the delivery of your speech.

Lesson 5-7: Creating and Presenting your Nation State

I. Here are some examples of poetry during the time period. Your assignment is to pick one of the following poems and analyze it. While reading the question ask yourself: What feelings do you have when reading these poems? How would you feel if this was written about/for your country? What factors from above do you see in your poetry? Discuss and review nationalism.

These are good links for nationalistic poetry if you need them:


Great Britain

Greece (a long poem, but it gets the idea across even if they don't read it all; Lord Byron is brilliant.)

France (Victor Hugo's ode to Napoleon's conquest and defeat)

II. Edit poetry with help from a partner. Make sure your poem has the following elements included:
1. A sense of National pride!
2. Either a realist or a romanticism aspect with the writing.
3. Both country and assigned politic view clearly shown.
4. Historically accurate.

III. Slide and Share Poetry Reading: You will now be broken up into new groups. Within these groups you will recite your poetry. Remember that you will be graded on a number of factors but most importantly your nationalistic passion must be included. Each student will read his or her poem, and you will secretly vote on whose is the best in your group.

VI: I can tell that we are starting to get that nationalistic fever! WOW it is hot in here! So let's take this a step further and show that we can make a nation. You will be assigned a plot of land that will need to be brought alive through the ideas of nationalism, romanticism and realism. Remember that the only rule that exists is a social contract that must be signed by all of the society's members before it becomes a nation-state. You will also be given background knowledge about your countries listed below. The following items must be made and presented before your nation-state will be recognized as official:

1. Pick the best poem out of your group. You will pick 2-4 stanzas and set them to a song. This will be your country's national anthem. Play with garage band to create your song. (National Anthems: http://www.nationalanthems.us/forum/YaBB.pl ----> Click on region ----> Click on country -----> Look for file has .mp3 within the title and click on that, song should play if you have QuickTime Free Version)
2. Flag
3. Currency/Money (Need an example of a bill)
4. iMovie Social Contract (Radical, Liberal or Conservative)
a) Review your social contract from the Enlightenment Unit
b) Brainstorm ideas on if you want your civilization to revolve around the concept of Radical, Liberal or Conservative compare to the social contract you have already developed! Do you want to change your social contract a lot, little or none at all? Be ready to explain your rational.
5. Cultural Analysis of Your Country: Examples include but are not limited to language, foods, national sport, traditions, holidays, etc. UPDATED NEW REQUIREMENT: Instead of simply telling us about your culture you will instead pick ONE aspect of your country's culture (food, sports,tradition, etc.) and demonstrate it in an interactive way. This should be fun and all members of the audiences should somehow be involved.
6. Speech Convincing Others to Join Your Nation

Posting: You will place this work within your work pages.

WH Spivey B 2009-10
WH Spivey C 2009-10

WH Spivey E 2009-10
WH Spivey F 2009-10

Presentation: You will have up to a maximum of 10 minutes teach us about your new nation-state. The presentation is not formal. The main purpose is to have fun. Remember some of the feedback the feedback from you last presentation. The last presentation was more formal this one is suppose to be more fun.

Links to help you:
This website has templates that you can click on and upload your picture. Your face will automatically appear in different situations!
My example:

by. Deborah K.

This website provides composer program.


By Dean L.

Assigned Country Descriptions:

Here are a list of countries and a brief description of their current state. From here let your imagination run free. You will have two full class periods to work on this project. On the third day you will introduce your countries by singing your anthem, showing your flag and preforming your speech. May the most nationalistic country win! Good luck!




Your kingdom is based on a peninsula. You have the largest and most powerful navy in the world. Your geographical location has been an asset to you historically. The mountain range to your east has provided you with protection against invasion from your neighbors. For the most part you have separated yourself instead of interacting with other. This has made it so that you have a unique culture. Your people tend to be very industrious and hard working.


You are located in the central heartland of the continent. For the past couple of centuries you have been able to expand your borders and create a large empire. You are well respected in the region but secretly you are losing power. Being in the middle of the continent you tend to be wary of others to a point but have faith in a balance of power system. You could hold your own until allies would join you.


Strong, tough and intelligent. You are the people of the regional lands Penland. Traditionally you have been separated into small kingdoms. It has become obvious that it is time to unite. In the region you feel as though you are not getting the respect that you deserve. As a group this frustrates you.


The highest and mightiest of the region. Your region is very diverse as it has fertile grounds, mountains, rivers, and a majestic forest. There is a natural pride that exists within you borders. Many of the other surrounding countries have been weary of you wand your intentions. But pay no attention to that because in many ways you are cultural superior to others and you know that it would not hurt if some Yorkton influence off in the rest of the region.


The lands of Sandia can be stated on only one word... HUGE! Sandia does a good job of representing this idea by the size of its land mass, population, mountains, and people. The only thing that is not big in Sandia is the economic status. Out of the region it by far the poorest. There are a number of factors to blame on this but most notably the geography is harsh on it's inhabitants. But overall people in Sandia are happy as they have there local drink to keep them warm during the long winters.


You have been repressed by a foreign power for way to long now. The empire that once took you over has started to crumble and you now see a chance to get freedom. There are surrounding countries that would support your cause and even though your land would be small it would be made up of people who are very much like you in every way (religion, language, ethnicity, etc.)! Historically you have been a proud people. It has been only 100 years since your own king had ruled. It is time to gain your independence and show the rest of the world what you are made of.

In Nationalism We Trust!

Nationalism and Diplomacy

1. Read "What is Diplomacy?" and "What is an Alliance?"
2. Watch the video.
3. Study the "World Situation Summary".

What is diplomacy?

“Diplomacy is the art of conducting international relations.” It is one tool in a state’s foreign policy toolbox when it comes to dealing with other nations. Diplomacy relies heavily on dialogue and negotiations to determine common interests and conflicts between nations. Many people think of diplomacy as negotiations over political interests or territorial conflict. However, diplomacy has also included business, economic, and religious purposes. As globalization has spread and communication technology has enhanced, diplomacy now encompasses everything from the colonization of space to human cloning.

Experts refer to diplomacy as an art because many techniques may be used by states to protect their interests and maximize their gains. At times, diplomacy may appear more like a chess match or poker game than a negotiation. Players may bluff, cheat, backstab, threaten, or refuse to meet in order to get what they want. In the recent negotiations over the disputed elections in Kenya, the two rival political factions argued for days about who would sit where before the negotiations even began. Likewise, negotiations take place in many different ways. Participants may sit across from each other or around a table; these sessions may be open or closed-door depending on their sensitivity. Other negotiations happen via phone, letter, through representatives or third parties, and even through the press. Obviously, this means language and culture play a huge role in negotiations. With the advent of modern technology, the art of diplomacy will become even more complicated and interesting as the years progress.

Diplomacy is essential to establish and uphold rules and procedures within the international community to preserve peace and nations’ sovereignty. It provides a framework for international law and organizations as well as a common system through which independent states can connect, collaborate and communicate with each other. Until another method is developed, diplomacy will dictate international relations and foreign policy for the foreseeable future.

Inspired by the following article:
Source: Future of Diplomacy by Hans J. Morgenthau
Notes:The Future of Diplomacy Notes

What is an alliance?

Another tool that is used in international relations in addition to diplomacy is an alliance treaty. An alliance consists of an agreement between two or more countries to stand up for and protect each other when threatened by another country or countries. When countries agree to advocate for each other, this is an offensive alliance; to protect each other, a defensive alliance. In theory, alliances help doubly ensure a balance of power exists between nations, but it comes with great risks also. As tensions escalate between countries over conflicts of interest, they both must think twice before using military force because they may actually be declaring war on more than one nation and jeopardize themselves in the process. In addition, partner nations may use the alliance system to try and gain advantage over other nations but risk dragging unwilling partners into war simultaneously.

Inspired by: "Alliances before and during World War I" http://psikoloji.fisek.com.tr/makale/alliance.htm

Upon reading these two descriptions, you may think to yourself that diplomacy and alliances are only used on the world stage. However, if you consider them more locally, you will realize that these are two basic units of human relations. How do you use diplomacy and alliances to obtain and protect your interests? How do you see others around you using diplomacy and alliances to obtain and protect their interests? Think of specific examples to share with your team and with the class.

Now back to a global perspective, think about diplomacy and alliances as follows and provide specific examples in your teams:

  • Why do you think most nations have a diplomatic corps devoted to foreign policy?
  • What do you think the life of a diplomat is like? Do you think diplomacy is easy or difficult? Why or why not?
  • Could you ever see yourself as a diplomat? Why or why not?
  • How effectively can you negotiate? What tactics would you use?
  • When do you see diplomacy and alliances coming into play internationally today? What benefits and risks do you see in these scenarios?

Study the "World Situation Summary" and be ready to conduct acts of diplomacy between your nations.

Creating Alliance and Treaties!

Review Diplomacy and Alliance reading at the beginning of class. Discuss the five types of alliances listed on the Treaty sheets.

1. Explain today's Alliance exercise: The purpose is to create as many alliances as possible to ensure political, economical, social, and cultural stability on the continent.

2. Distribute Confidential Fact Sheets and Treaty sheets. Stress the null and void provision on the back of the treaty worksheet. This is crucial.
external image msword.png Official Treaty or Alliance.doc

3. Strategy time: 10-15 minutes for students to discuss their alliance wish lists.

4. Diplomacy time: time as needed. Students may send up to two reps out to negotiate as long as one remains to negotiate at their delegation table. Students should trade roles during process. Students must get treaties approved by the teacher during the process, and teacher must announce treaties as they are approved. Post the treaties on the wall so students can refer to them. Students must police the treaties to make sure alliances are not null and void based on their provisions.