Unit Objectives:

  • The student understands the causes of European, American, and Japanese imperial expansion.
  • Explain leading ideas of Social Darwinism and scientific racism in 19th-century Europe and assess the importance of these ideas in activating European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia.
  • Describe advances in transportation, medicine, and weapons technology in Europe in the later 19th century and assess the importance of these factors in the success of imperial expansion.
  • Analyze the motives that impelled several European powers to undertake imperial expansion against peoples of Africa, Southeast Asia, and China.
  • Relate the Spanish-American War to United States participation in Western imperial expansion in the late 19th century.
  • Assess the effects of the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars and colonization of Korea on the world-power status of Japan.
  • The student understands transformations in South, Southeast, and East Asia in the era of the “new imperialism.”
  • Analyze changes in Indian society and economy under British rule.
  • Explain the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism and analyze reactions of the British government to it.
  • Compare French and British colonial expansion in mainland Southeast Asia and analyze Thailand’s success in avoiding colonization.
  • Analyze how the termination of the Atlantic slave trade and increased output of European manufactured goods affected economies of West and Central Africa.
  • Analyze the sources and effectiveness of military, political, and religious resistance movements against European conquest in such regions as Algeria, Morocco, West Africa, the Sudan, Ethiopia, and South Africa.
  • Explain major changes in the political geography of northern and Sub-Saharan Africa between 1880 and 1914.


Imperialism_cover_photo.jpg
Becoming civilized is such a brutal process.

I. Thoughts and Observations on the Mid-Term


II. Timeline: From Age of Exploration to Industrial Revolution (w/ dates!)


1. Will have to identify the following ages:
a) Age of Exploration, b) Reformation, c) Scientific Revolution, d) Enlightenment, e) Age of Revolution, f) Industrial Revolution and g) Age of Imperialism (<-- Dates only)


2. Start a "Google Doc" in which you will collaborate your answers on.
a) Dates for when ages approximately began and ended.
b) What is the main importance of the age?
c) Three pieces of solid evidence with a quick description, three sentences or less, justifying your selection.

3. After collaborating copy the following information using Timeline-- ReadWriteThink (or another time-line program that can be printed out).

4. Printout and hangup on the wall by next class! Woot!

III. Look over "family homework"


Family Homework (Due February 8th at 8:00 A.M.)




Introduction to Imperialism: Reading

Read p. 10-16. Practice taking notes the way Mr. Spivey discussed before. We will have you get together with a parttner and have you ask questions about the text. Regroup and discuss as a class.

What does Darwin say about Imperialism?



Music about Darwin to help you study!


Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa


Berlin Conference General Act of 1885




"By 'imperialism' I mean the process whereby the dominant politico-economic interests of one nation expropriate for their own enrichment the land, labor, raw materials, and markets of another people." Michael Parenti



The act of imperialism has truly changed the face of this earth. The world's distrust towards nations with wealth become much clearer as the Age of Imperialism unfolds. The first example we will be looking at is the relationship between Europe and Africa. Here are some questions you should ask yourself while studying this unit.

1. Why did imperialism start in Europe?
2. What was the incentive of Europe to become imperialists over other countries?
3. Why was Africa imperialized?
4. How did imperialism change the world?
5. Do the benefits of imperialism outweigh the costs?

Imperialism Study Case 1: Africa and Europe Relations (1450-1890)


Part 1- A Brief History of the Relationship Between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe

The Period of Initial Contact (1450-1530)
  • The initial reason for Europe's contact with Sub-Saharan Africa was that many countries within Europe were trying to find a way to bypass Muslim traders that dominated the land routes through the Middle-East and Northern Africa.
  • The country to first explore Sub-Saharan Africa was the Portuguese. They landed on the west side of the continent (modern day Ghana and Nigeria) and established ports for the purpose of resupplying their expeditions while trying to find a route to India, China and the Spice Islands.
  • There was a small amount of legitimate trading on the coast of western Africa. Items included gold, ivory and coconuts. Compared to India, China and the Spice Islands, there was very little economic interest in the region.
  • Africa's east coast and interior were not explored. It was perceived as a dangerous and dark place. The Portuguese did not start "exploring" the east coast of Africa until the 1530's when it needed to supply China and India with gold at a more constant rate. At this period of time, Africa was simply a nuisance for those trying to establish trade routes with the "East."

The Enslavement of Sub-Saharan Africans to the Americas (1490's-1880's)
  • Slavery began prior to this era but became more of a widespread practice in Europe and the Americas because of Europeans' 'sweet tooth' for tobacco, sugar and rum.
  • The amount of Africans that were displaced during this time period is very much disputed. Some estimate as few as 6 million to as many as 30 million people were taken from the interior of Africa and shipped over to the Americas.
  • As Europe started to dominate the world, a feeling of superiority started to spread throughout the region. The idea of Eurocentrism, the belief that those from Europe were from a superior bloodline, took root. The concept of "race" started to be used during this time period. This easily allowed the human mind to justify social structures. Eventually, the word "slave" became associated with black Africans, this was how African slavery became both accepted and justified.
  • When slavery became illegal in both Europe and the Americas, a majority of European nations started to lose interest in the region. At this point, Africans were seen as savage animals or at least lesser humans by most Europeans. This belief was fueled by Charles Darwin's theories. A new concept known as Social Darwinism became very popular among educated circles.

The Age of Land Exploration in Sub-Saharan Africa (1840-1890)
  • Even though traders were losing interest in Sub-Saharan Africa (only palm oil and ground nuts which were low in profit margin compared to slavery), a rising social class in Europe started to take notice of its raw materials. Take a guess....
  • Yes! Europe needed raw materials to produce goods and Sub-Saharan Africa had an abundance of such raw materials.
  • Between 1840-1890, explorers started to go into the interior of Africa. As each country started to send more and more expeditions out, it became clear that a fierce competition was starting to develop for access to African resources.
  • Europe had been in relative peace after the Congress of Vienna, which was a direct cause of Napoleon's takeover of Europe. Through the Congress's established policy of "balance of power," no one country was stronger than another, but with the scramble for Africa taking in full swing, there were hints of war in the air once again. Business interests really began the tensions between nations rather than the governments themselves.
  • Instead of going to war, a conference was set up by the major European powers. Today, that conference is know as the Berlin Conference and you just simulated it. What lesson did you learn from the simulation?
  • What were the direct effects of colonization? This opened up a floodgate for European powers to set up colonies and spread Christianity and industrialization throughout Africa and eventually a majority of the world.

Motives
  1. Business: Access to natural resources and goods of Africa, Asia and Middle East
  2. Nationalism: Growing sense of national identities and pride fueling competition between European states
  3. Global dominance: Desire to establish global empire and overseas colonies were a means to do that
  4. Racism: Belief in Darwin's theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest made Europeans think they were superior to all other cultures
  5. Technology: Development of the following technologies were crucial to conquest of the world.
    Penetration: Quinine to cure malaria and steamships to rapidly access interior regions of countries
    Weapons: Rapid-fire rifles and machine guns
    Consolidation: waterways like Suez Canal, steamship lines, cables and railroads allowed Europeans to stay in closer contact and gain easier access to their holdings

Berlin Conference Map - Jenn Kim 9G

berlin_conference_map.jpg


Homework: Read p. 17-32 and take notes on your reading.
http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/maps/africa1914.jpg --> Check out this map! (Brenda H. 2010)

Lesson Two: Putting Imperialism into Action!

1. Discuss assigned reading.
2. Primary Source Reading, "British Contract with African King"
3. Discuss "How to take over a country!"
4. Slogans
5. Homework read "Imperialism Takes Off" by Bonnie G. Smith p. 192-208 (stop at "Germany became a modern...")



imperialism.gif
What tittle would you give to this cartoon?
One of the mysteries of imperialism is the idea a foreign power being able to take over a country in one fell swoop. It is hard to imagine how a foreign country can take over an established society/culture in a matter of months. I want you to pretend that a foreign entente has come into your country and took it over. When first taking over your nation, the foreign power convinces who ever is in change that they will be allowed in your countries borders and that it has a right to change of some the existing laws and inject parts of the foreign culture into your society. What would be your reaction? What if you had to change religions, languages, or were treated as inferior? What could be some of the long term consequences?


Lets now flip the role. You are a the leader of an expedition from a foreign nation that has been commissioned to imperialize a foreign nation. You know that your government and big business with your country are relying on you to get control over the foreign country as soon as possible. If you succeed that could be riches beyond imagination and one day your name could be printed into a history book. So the questions becomes; if you were in charge of getting a strong hold on this foreign country, how you would go about doing it?

Terms:
Divide and Conquer
Paternalism
Indirect Rule
Assimilation
Force Policy

Homework: Read "Imperialism Takes Off" p. 33-48 (stop at "Germany became a modern..."). Bring your Modern World History textbooks to class next time!


Lesson 3: Imperial Jigsaw Research Day


Activity #1: Imperialist Slogans:

Start class by watching your classmates' "Imperialist Slogan". Make sure you understand all of the terms after watching the skits. If not, be sure to ask the other teams to help you better understand them.

Terms:
Divide and Conquer
Paternalism
Indirect Rule
Assimilation
Force Policy

Activity #2: Imperialism Jigsaw Challenge


Over the course of this unit, we have been examining imperialism from both a European and African perspective. As your first reading explained, imperialism in the 19th century was a global phenomenon. Now that we have examined the causes of imperialism, we must tell the rest of the story from both perspectives and the consequences of global imperialism.

In teams, you will read about one part of the world that was overtaken, colonized, and exploited by Europe. Together, you will tell both sides of the story for the region you have been assigned. Finally, you will summarize what the consequences of imperialism were for your region.

1. Storytelling Presentation: As budding historians, you need to become captivating storytellers. Until the modern era, this is how history was spread. Your team will need to develop a captivating story to tell your classmates. Within your story, you will need to share both perspectives: the European and the indigenous. To conclude your story, you will need to summarize the consequences for your region. Your presentation needs last between 10-12 minutes.


Your regions and reading assignments are as follows in Modern World History:

  1. Africa p. 305-315
  2. India p.321-325
  3. Middle East p.317-320
  4. South East Asia, China and the Pacific Islands p. 326-329 & p. 334-339
  5. Latin America p. 344-347

In addition, check out ABC-CLIO to supplement the textbook. First, you will need to sign into ABC-CLIO.

Sign In: KIS
Password: welcome

Once signed in go to: http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Eras/Default.aspx

Scroll down to the era entitled, Spheres of Influence, 1776-1914, and find your region there. If you want to conduct additional research outside of the sources recommended to you, that is fine but remember that you will have to cite all sources. In addition, please remember not to plagiarize. If you are not sure if you are plagiarizing, please see your teacher for assistance.

3. Rubric: This project will be worth 50 points, and you will be assessed on this project as follows:




Now that you have your assignment, follow these next steps to help you with your presentation:

Part 1:
1. Read the text individually.
2. Be interactive with the text by taking notes that address your (a) analysis (patterns, themes, shifts, C-C-C, etc.), (b) questions and (c) identify key ideas, people, places and events.
3. Get into your group and go over your notes. (a)Critique each others analysis logically. (b) Try to answer each others questions. (c) Share and compare key ideas, people and events.
4. Ask Mr. Spivey any questions you might have.

Part 2:
1. Ask yourself what makes a GREAT presentation. In groups spend a couple of minutes discussing presentations you have seen here at school that you have really enjoyed. Write down a list of attributes you would like to see in your presentation.
2. Look at the following Keynote to help guide you in identifying what makes a great presentation:

3. Watch up to 8:44 of the following video. Think about how you can apply this message to your presentation.


Part 3:
1. Look at your assigned content and think about how you want to get the message across.
2. Explore tools that you can use: iLife, iWorks, Web-based tools: http://cooltoolsforschools.wikispaces.com/
3. Brainstorm some ideas on how you will present your information by idenfifying:
a. What tools will you use?
b. What content will you translate? (Make sure you include: (a) perspectives and (b) short term consequences)
c. How will you make your presentation standout like the purple cow?
d. Write down your plan and show your ideas to Mr. Spivey

Part 4:
1. Create!
2. Present
3. Peer, self and teacher evaluation of both content and presentation.

Due Date: 11th and 12th 2010

Class List:

WH Spivey B 2009-10
WH Spivey C 2009-10

WH Spivey E 2009-10
WH Spivey F 2009-10

Homework:

1. Read the "imperialism" section directly below your groups section.

2. Watch your presentation and reflect on it by answering the following questions. Both post on the wiki in the decision tab above and printout:
http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/4657647

A. Did you hit the requirements? Why or why not?
B. What was successful in your presentation?
C. What would you personally like to work on before next presentation?
D. Which would you like to "borrow" from an other group and expand on next presentation?


Lesson 4 and Review


1. Finish Presentations


2. Primary Source Practice: Imperialism!


Read the following sources and answer the questions that follow each source. These will help you prepare for the test.

"On French Colonial Expansion" http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1884ferry.html

What were the motives behind French Colonial expansion and did they correspond to the motives of other European imperialistic countries in this era?

The Platt Amendment http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1901platt.html

How much did the Platt Amendment allow the U.S. to infringe upon Cuba's independence?

"The Benefits of British Rule" http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1871britishrule.html

After analyzing the author's analysis of British rule in India, do you believe that there were more benefits or costs from the Indian perspective?

"When the whites came to our country, we had the land and they had the Bible, now we have the Bible and they have the land." -- African proverb

Explain the paradox in the proverb above using examples from your studies regarding Imperialism.

Political Cartoon Question
China_imperialism_cartoon.jpg

Closely examine the political cartoon above. What caption would you give this cartoon and why?


3. Review:


What are some fundamental differences between colonization during the Age of Discovery and Imperialism of the 19th and 20th centuries?

What justification did Imperialist nations use when invading and influencing foreign lands?

What tactics did Europe use in controlling native imperialized populations?

What commonalities existed between the imperialized? How about the imperialists? (Think in terms of perspective.)

What global changes took place because of this age?

What are some major themes that can be pulled out during the age of imperialism?

Look up key terms, concepts, people, places and events for evidence in your essay.



Homework:
1. Read "Rivalry and Resistance" by Bonnie G. Smith p. 119-124 and 130-133. Focus on bold text only.
2. Review