Work Division


Comics and youtube posts were done together

Soyeon:
Introduction
Yalta Conference
CIA- Background and what they've done to other countries (Coops)

Kevin:
Postdam Conference
Relationship between Russia and U.S
KGB - Background and what they've done to other countries




Introduction

A key concept of the Cold War was the competition for the popular form of government. The foreign relations of the US and USSR were extremely important in who won the “competition” of the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union used any method possible to spread their form of government. For the United States this was democracy and for the Soviet Union, communism. These super-powers paid other nations with money and weapons, used their espionage groups to overthrow governments unfavorable to them, and constantly competed each other to try and be the superior country.




Videos on background information

This comic shows the American view of communism.

This video is a form of propaganda during the 1950s. "This film tries to dispell fear of nuclear radiation by such tactics as portraying the human body as a factory run by pixies, telling you you can always get a toupee if your hair falls out, and informing you that you'll be dead before getting a high enough dose of radiation to make you sterile." (UrbanRust - YouTube user)





The Competition Gets Fierce

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Origin of the KGB

The first forerunners of the KGB (Komiyet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti which stands for Committee for State Secutiry) were the Cheka (first soviet state security organization), which was established in 1917. The Cheka’s organization purposes and goals changed over the years, eventually changing into an umbrella organization of police and law enforcement powered group, KGB; however, the KGB did not stand on its ground for too long. The corrupted chief of the KGB attempted to overthrow the president and its government, but failed, and arrested. On November 6, 1991, the KGB was forgotten. The remainders of the KGB were split into two different organizations, FSB, the organization that functions like CIA of the United States, and SVR, the organization for foreign intelligence gathering.

KGB’s Purpose and Functions
The KGB worked based on the orders of the Council of Ministers. Unlike other organizations, KGB’s statue was not published, which helped them work stealthily and easily able to spy. KGB’s tasks were often times about the four areas: the struggle against foreight spies and agents, the exposure and investigation of political and economic crimes by citizens, the protection of state borders, and the protection of state secrets.

Military Power

The number of people involved with the KGB was ranged from 490,000 in 1973 to 700,000 in 1986. KGB grew bigger and bigger, and it also had its hands on other smaller organizations. The KGB border troops patrolled around the Russian borders to make sure any illegal trades of weapons and other objects are forbidden unless authorized from the government. , including its borders for internal security and to prevent any trouble within the states. The noticeable characteristics of the KGB was that they wore green piping on their uniforms,
<http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/kgb/index.html> (includes the whole KGB information)




The Yalta Agreement

February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to reconcile their differences. They agreed to five main points that would change the outcome of future events.

1. First, they all decided to free all of Europe that was under Nazi rule during WWII. They wanted to get completely rid Nazism and Fascism from the European nations. The European countries were to be allowed to have their own form of government that they would choose independently. Later on, it is noted that the Soviet Union does not follow this term and instead forces communism on most of the east European nations. Although they strongly agreed that all people have the right to choose their form of government, the Soviet Union still used forceful measures to control and keep European nations pro-Soviet.

2. The three leaders also decided to divide Germany into zones after the war. Each of them would occupy a zone and take $20 billion for reparations, with half going to the Soviet Union. However, it is later noticed that the zones turn into East and West Germany. The Soviet Union takes 1/4 of East Germany's economic earnings for its own war costs constantly, which eventually led to the downfall of East Germany.

3. "The Soviet Union was to be given the eastern part of Poland to improve its defences." (The Cold War, Superpower Relations, 1945-1989, Brooman) Poland, in exchange, Poland would get eastern Germany. This also proves not to be so effective, as the Soviet Union occupies Poland and eastern Germany.

4. World peace was to be toiled for by the UN in an organization that they would make.

5. Japan was to be attacked by the USSR after Germany had surrendered in the war. However, due to the atomic bombs developed in the United States, the help of the Soviet Union was no longer needed, as after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet Union invaded Japan, but Japan had already surrendered.

The competition for the best technology in nuclear weaponry was startling. The two countries didn't dare fall behind in making weapons they prayed to never use. The nuclear arms race not only strained the relationship between the USSR and the United States, but turned their relationship into almost enemy scenes. The two nations found ways to threaten each other and how to meet threats made by other nations.




The CIA

During the Cold War, the key point of the war was to spread Communism or Democracy throughout the world. Each nation used forceful ways to get their favorable "form of government" (the name of the country was more important) into the most nations. The CIA performed many coups to overthrow the pro-Soviet governments and replace it with a government favorable to the United States.

After he confiscated two thirds of United Fruit Co.'s land and legalizing the Communist Party in Guatemala, the CIA planned to overthrow President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman because he was considered a Communist threat. Documents have shown that the CIA made "hit-lists" and trained Central American assassins to the Communist leaders in Guatemala. Although the assassinations were never in fact carried out, the USA supported many rebels. Two weeks later, Guzman resigned himself. The successor, Castillo Armas, reportedly gave the CIA a list of 58 names to be assassinated. He continued to rule with force and the US continued to fund him until they had to go through another coup to overthrow him for taking land from the United Fruit Co. as well.

In Congo, the CIA had replaced Patrice Lumumba because they considered him to be a communist threat. Although Lumumba was only asking the Soviet Union for help because Congo was under complete chaos after their independence, the CIA considered this unacceptable. The CIA began looking for new replacements and found Mabutu. On January 17th, 1961 Lumumba was dragged into the jungles and tortured and murdered by troops loyal to Mabutu. Mabutu did not welcome the Soviet Union in Congo and was supported by the USA. Mabutu was known to have stolen a mass amount of money and bought many palaces in Europe. He had a private airport with a plane for shopping trips to Paris. The CIA knew the theft that Mabutu committed, however, they continued to support him even until the 1990s. In his country, he violated various human rights and killed anyone who opposed him.

Laos, Iran, Cambodia, Indonesia, Bolivia, Cambodia, Chile, Cuba, as well as many other nations had coups attempted on them. Although not all of them had succeeded, many have and this posed a huge problem for the nations themselves but was a game in which the US competed against the Soviet Union for more nations.






Potsdam conference

The Potsdam Conference took place in Cecilienhof, where Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern’s home town. The conference’s participants were Soviet Union, and United States. The three nations judged what will happen to Germany and at first, the three nations wanted to divide the Germany and each of the nations having control over it, but in the end, German was not ruled by three different nations.

The Faith of Germany was:

  • “Issuance of a statement of aims of the occupation of Germany by the Allies: demilitarization, denazification, democratization, decentralization and decartelization.
  • Division of Germany and Austria respectively into four occupation zones (earlier agreed in principle at Yalta), and the similar division of each's capital, Berlin and Vienna, into four zones.
  • Agreement on the prosecution of Nazi war criminals.
  • Reversion of all German annexations in Europe, including Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria and the westernmost parts of Poland
  • Germany's eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder-Neisse line, effectively reducing Germany in size by approximately 25% compared to her 1937 borders. The territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia, Silesia, West Prussia, and two thirds of Pomerania. These areas were mainly agricultural, with the exception of Upper Silesia which was the second largest centre of German heavy industry.
  • Expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the new eastern borders of Germany.
  • Agreement on war reparations to the Soviet Union from their zone of occupation in Germany. It was also agreed that 10% of the industrial capacity of the western zones unnecessary for the German peace economy should be transferred to the Soviet Union within 2 years. Stalin proposed and it was accepted that Poland was to be excluded from division of German compensation to be later granted 15% of compensation given to Soviet Union (this has never happened)
  • Ensuring that German standards of living did not exceed the European average. The types and amounts of industry to dismantle to achieve this was to be determined later. (see The industrial plans for Germany)
  • Destruction of German industrial war-potential through the destruction or control of all industry with military potential. To this end, all civilian shipyards and aircraft factories were to be dismantled or otherwise destroyed. All production capacity associated with war-potential, such as metals, chemical, machinery etc were to be reduced to a minimum level which was later determined by the Allied Control Commission. Manufacturing capacity thus made "surplus" was to be dismantled as reparations or otherwise destroyed. All research and international trade was to be controlled. The economy was to be decentralized (decartelization). The economy was also to be reorganized with primary emphasis on agriculture and peaceful domestic industries. In early 1946 agreement was reached on the details of the latter: Germany was to be converted into an agricultural and light industry economy. German exports were to be coal, beer, toys, textiles, etc — to take the place of the heavy industrial products which formed most of Germany's pre-war exports. “

The faith of Poland:
· “A Provisional Government of National Unity recognized by all three powers should be created (known as the Lublin Poles). Recognition of the Soviet controlled government by the Western Powers effectively meant end of recognition for the existing Polish government in Exile (known as the London Poles).
· Poles who were serving in the British Army should be free to return to Poland, with no security upon their return to the communist country guaranteed.
· The provisional western border should be the Oder-Neisse line, defined by the Oder and Neisse rivers. Parts of East Prussia and the former Free City of Danzig should be under Polish administration. However the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement (which would take place at the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany in 1998)
· The Soviet Union declared it will settle the reparation claims of Poland from its own share of reparations (it never did)”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potsdam_Conference (The lists of the conclusions of the Potsdam conference)




Relationship between Russia and U.S

The most basic cause of the Cold war is the idea of how the government should be run. Russia supported communism, while the United States ran for capitalism. The two ideas are exactly opposite from each other because communism is the idea where everyone shares everything, no one having more than others. The idea of Capitalism is a type of a government that has an economic system where the private individuals or companies have the right and power to do what they desire with that they gain, so the rich will stay rich, while the poor is most likely to stay poor.




Funding of Communism and Democracy

The USA heavily started funding anti-Soviet groups in 1948. President Truman gave aid to the Royalists who were in a civil war against the Communists in Greece. Because of this funding, Greece remained the only country out of Soviet control. In the Marshall Plan, the USA gave $16 billion to the European nations to help stop the spread of communism. Soon afterwards, the Soviet Union started to give money and weaponry to the anti-American government of Cuba. The two superpowers (in a sense) bribed the other nations to support them. The nations needed to have donations of some kind from one of the superpowers in order to support them.




Conclusion

In conclusion, we want to show you that the Cold War is a main reason for the many conflicts in other nations and in foreign relations today. Although it was merely a competition for the United States and the Soviet Union, other nations severely suffered from constant interference with their governments. While protecting their form of government, they ignored basic moral values and human rights being violated. The people of Congo suffered from the harsh rule of Mobutu as a dictator, but this was ignored by the US because Congo did what they asked. Competition is a dangerous thing when it comes to worldly issues and we should be careful of this in the future.



Sources:

"COMMITTEE FOR STATE SECURITY." www.fas.org. 26 Nov.-Dec. 1997. 29 May 2008 <http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/kgb/index.html>.
"Cold War." Wikipedia. 30 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War>.
"THE COLD WAR AS GLOBAL a CONFLICT." ICAS Projects. 2003. 29 May 2008 <http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/icas/cold_war.htm>.
"Potsdam Conference." Wikipedia. 30 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potsdam_Conference>.
Brooman, Josh. The Cold War. New York: Longman Inc., 1997. 1-48.

"The Yalta Agreement." CNN Interactive. 2 June 2008 <http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/01/documents/yalta.html>.</span>