Gina- Introduction, Religion, Arts
Chris- Conclusion, millitary, Foreign policy and interaction


MIDDLE EAST includes:middle_east2.gif


- Turkey
- Syria
- Cyprus
- Lebanon
- Israel
- Jordan
- Iraq
- Saudi Arabia
- Kuwait
- Yemen
- Bahrain
- Qatar
- Oman
- Iran
- United Arab Emirates


Introduction:


People of Middle East are largely influenced by the history from 1300s to 1800s. The Ottoman Empire has made a large impact to the world of Middle East during the 1700s through religion, arts, culture, and military. The Ottomans, a group of Islamic Turks, came to power and quickly expanded their territory. Playing its role as the geographic center of the civilized world from 14th century to 16th century, the Ottoman Empire is known to be the last of the ancient empires. But the Ottoman Empire can also be seen as the first Muslim influenced government. Thus, the Ottoman Empire played an essential role in the Middle East, as the Islamic religion still strongly evolves around today in the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak during the 1700s and eventually declined in the 1800s. But Ottoman stood in the unique part of history; through the Ottoman Empire’s conquest and trade, it allowed the East and the West to make interactions through various kinds of factors that are to be explained below.



Religion:


islam_prayer.jpg


Islam vigorously affects Middle East, ergo; the religion Islam plays an influential role in the Middle East. Such predomination of Islam throughout Middle East began all the way back in the 1300s. Although Muhammad, an Arab who found Islam, founded the religion in the early 600s, 1700s was the span that was designated to the spread of Muslim in Middle East due to invasion of the Ottoman Empire. As the Ottoman Empire took over Middle East from 1300s to 1800s, Ramadan and Pilgrimage to Mecca became essential assignment in affirming one’s faith. Ramadan was a period of fasting, which is practiced on the ninth month of the lunar calendar, which lasted from sunrise to sunset. Furthermore, it was considered to be a blessing for a Muslim to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime, as pilgrimage to Mecca was and still is believed to be a blessing. Peculiarly, even though the Ottoman Empire made its decline after the peak around the 1700s, the religion did not vanish. It is amazing that Muslims have continued to adhere to their faith by practicing Islamic religion: Praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, and making pilgrimages to Mecca. The spirit of Islam and the belief of Allah still remain strong in the Middle East today, presumably due to powerful influence of the Ottoman Empire.


Arts:

5x8_trk_orntl_grld_dk_blv2w.jpg The beauty of Middle East that we are able to perceive today was something indispensable in the 1700s; Arts and culture were some primitive factors in completing other major factors of Middle East. Much of the Arts in Middle East evolved around religion. Some famous art techniques during the ruling of the Ottoman Empire were Tile work, Turkish Rugs, and Army bands. Firstly tile work was an important design of the floors and walls in mosques and government buildings. The geometric designs helped accentuate open worship.Due to the invasion of the Ottoman Empire, Islam brought many influential preachers, thus, also bringing artists from different parts of Middle East. Likewise, trade played a significant role in the world of arts in Middle East during the 1700s; the beauty of design arts and tile works were China’s efficacy. Stalaverafront.jpgecondly, Turkish rugs were important for the Ottoman Empire, as rugs were used as prayer rugs and decorations. It is known that each Muslim man owned at least one prayer rug. Once again, trade made a mark in the arts of the Middle East, as these rugs came from Azerbaijan and Egypt. The Egyptian wool enabled carpets to achieve a high place in art of Middle East. Lastly, army bands were important in determining government’s rank. Army bands in the Middle East were made of different sizes, in which each size measured rank. Bands usually included percussion instruments introduced by the Europeans. The percussion of the band was a rich form of art during the Ottoman Empire. Consequently, the Ottoman Empire has made a huge mark in history by having the power to maintain such art forms even until this day.



Foreign Policy and Interaction:


During 1700’s, Ottoman Empire engaged in many different wars. After Treaty of Karlowitz(1699) ended the war between Ottoman Empire and Holy League, Ottomans signed Treaty of Constantinople(1700) with Russia. This treaty granted Russia representation at capital of Ottoman Empire, Constantinople and eliminated the tribute that Russia had to pay to Ottoman Empire.
After losing the Battle of Poltava(1709) with Russia, Cossack Ukraine and the Charles XII, exiled Swedish King, ran away to Ottoman Empire. Ottoman declared war on Russia as they ally with Cossack Ukraine and the Charles XII. Ottomans surrounded the Russians in Pruth River and rang the bell of victory. They signed Treaty of the Pruth, which abolished the representation of Russia in Constantinople, released all Ottoman prisoners in Russia and insured Peter the Great’s safety. There is a legend that leader of Ottoman Empire was bribed but nobody knows the truth.
Hearten by the victory, Ottoman Empire assaulted Venetian Republic. Under the leadership of new grand vizier, Ottomans seized Corinth, Argos, Nauplia, Koron, Navarino, Modon, Aegina, and Teno. Unstoppable Ottomans struggled capturing the city of Corfu because Austria had joined the defensive force. Ottomans faced defeats after defeats and finally signed the Treaty of Passarowitz(1718) which granted Austria’s trading privileges in Ottoman Empire.


Military


Ottoman Empire’s army had an elite force called Janissary Corps. They were about twelve to twenty thousand foot soldiers and it consisted of slaves who were once Christians. Soldiers received military trainings by veterans who earned credit during the war. They served as policemen when they weren’t fighting.
Selim III reformed the shape of military during late 1700’s. He tried to westernize the army by creating new elite force called nizam-I jedid. He probably knew that his empire would repeat the tragedy of Russo-Turkish war if they do not westernize the military. However angry Janissaries, former elite force, overturned his efforts. By force, they replaced Selim III with Muhmad II and Selim’s reform became waste. It was a main cause for defeat of Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829 because Ottomans did not have enough time to organize a new army.
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Selim III


Conclusion


Ottoman Empire faced many difficulties but also enjoyed some prosperity in religion. Fall of Ottoman Empire began during 1700’s. In battles, they faced technology that they weren’t able to defeat. Even though they lost many wars, they were able to spread Muslims through battles. Art of Ottoman Empire expressed religious ideas and their beliefs. Their military power weakened as they faced internal conflicts such as rebellion of Janissary Corp. Internal conflicts and military weakness led to the fall of Ottoman Empire. On the contrary, art and religion of Ottoman Empire prospered during 1700's.

Bibliography:

Powell, John, and Frank N. Magill, eds. "The Ottoman Empire." The 18th Century. 2006.
Davis, Lucile. The Ottoman Empire. New York: Blackbirch P, Incorporated, 2004.
Greenblatt, Miriam. Suleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Empire. Benchermark Books. 2003
http://www.tileofluxury.com/tile_history.php
http://www.internetrugs.com/blog/turkish-rugs-anadol-im-international-and-the-rest/
http://motivelesscrime.blogspot.com/2007/07/five-pillars-of-islam.html
http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures2/Yeni/por2_3.JPG
http://www.theottomans.org/english/campaigns_army/index.asp