Task

1 to 2, student(s) will
  • research their assigned topic using their textbook, the Internet, and other outside sources (books, magazines, etc).
  • write a detailed, but concise response to the topic. Use of lists is encouraged. Make sure you include the relevant facts and how they are connected, significant, etc. Important themes, people and terms will be defined as links within the article.
  • try to link your page to related pages created by other groups.
  • make sure into include pictures, videos and other forms of media to help a variety of different learners.
  • this assignment should help you with the final exam as the acorn book defines which questions can and cannot be asked.
  • remember to include the 5 themes of AP world as the question could be manipulated into these theme.



external image _41621610_monks_ap.jpgBuddhism


India
Although Buddhism rarely achieved prominence in the Indian subcontinent, the emergence of Buddhism, especially under Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire, signalled the rise of the status of women in Indian society. It must be remembered that India's chief religion, Hinduism, antagonised women and placed utmost importance on the classification and stratification of individuals. The establishment of a Buddhist leader, therefore, elevated the status of women.

Mahayana Buddhism in China
Similarly to Buddhism's impact on Indian women, Buddhism's impact on Chinese women was an ameliorating one that – more than anything – elevated the status of women. Buddhism allowed women to escape the boundaries imposed upon the female gender by giving women opportunities to leave their domestic responsibilities for a monastic life. In any case, Buddhism, unlike Confucianism, was a mere religion – it was a spiritual medium for the well-being of the soul that really did not have any direct bearing upon the status of women.


external image Isabella_Clara_Eugenia_as_a_nun.jpgChristianity


Roman Empire
Since Christianity did not exist as an actual religion before the exploits of Paul of Tarsus and his thirteen epistles of the New Testament, it is difficult to analyse a belief system's influence upon Western European women before the first century C.E. – after all, classical civilisations in Europe largely entertained polytheisms told for entertainment. However, before the emergence of Christianity, it is evident that the status of women was decidedly lower than that of men. The existence of social norms such as the pater familias ensured that women were largely responsible for private, domestic affairs.

However, with the rise of Christianity, especially within the later life of the Western Roman Empire, a resultant rise in the status of women is apparent. This is perhaps because Christianity does not dictate upon the ethos of a particular society, unlike Confucianism or Hinduism. Christianity furthermore allowed women to follow monastic lives that defied previously upheld societal norms.

(Note: This rise in stature is certainly discontinued as Christianity seizes the whole of Europe, as the rise of feudalism and the Catholic Church fuel the reciprocated fall of the female gender. This is exemplified by the numerous witch hunts undertaken by the Holy Inquisition.)


Confucianism


external image 340x.jpg

China
After China had been able to assume a cohesive, unified empire through the Han Dynasty, the Chinese government based itself upon Confucian morals. As Confucianism preached that a society should be rightfully patriarchal and considered women of secondary status, women in Chinese society was also entitled to privileges decidedly lesser than that of men. For example, only sons could inherit property in the household. However, the notion that all women were subservient to men in Confucian China is utterly false, for the measure of influence that one could exert into society depended much more upon one's social status than one's gender. Aristocratic women, for example, could still be educated and be influential in society, as exemplified by numerous Chinese female scholars.


external image 2002080900090901.jpgHinduism


Hindu India
Pre-Hindu India is largely idenitifiable as the Indus Valley civilisation that rested upon the Indus River. In this largely unknown civilisation, it has been suggested by the slight archaeological evidence that has been obtained that there existed near-equality between the male and female genders. However, with the rise of Hinduism and the establishment of the Hindu caste system, Indian society assumed a more patriarchal structure. An example of this inequality is the Hindu practise of sati, where widows were expected to throw themselves on the burning funeral pyres of their husbands. Women also could not attain moksha, the highest state of being that meant the liberation of the self from the caste system.


Summary

Religion
Attitude towards women
Buddhism
  • Buddhism did not (for the most part) affect the status of women
  • Buddhism was more geared towards the spiritual enhancement of the self and thus did not leave a great imprint on societal structure
  • The monastic nature of Buddhism allowed women to enter convents and separate themselves from their normal domestic lives
Christianity
  • Similarly to Buddhism, Christianity allowed women to partake in Christian practises
  • The monastic nature of Christianity also allowed women to become nuns and thus remove themselves from a domestic lifestyle
Confucianism
  • Largely worsened the status of women in Chinese society
  • Only sons could inherit property
  • However, the benefits one possessed depended much more upon social status than gender
    • For example, aristocratic women could be educated
  • There nevertheless was the presence of certain influential women, such as Empress Wu of the Han Dynasty
Hinduism
  • The Indus Valley civilisation treated both genders with near-equality
  • Hinduism worsened the status of women in India after its introduction
  • The caste system worked in cohesion with this sense of patriarchy
  • Women could not attain moksha - liberation from the caste system through social mobility
  • Women also were expected to partake in rituals such as sati

A continuation of this wiki page – into the post-Classical Era – is on:
http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/Analyze+gender+systems+and+changes%2C+such+as+the+effects+of+Islam+Susan+%26+Soobin+B+Block


Bibliography

Pictures
Books
  • Review, Princeton. Cracking the AP World History Exam, 2006-2007 Edition (College Test Prep). Princeton: Princeton Review, 2006.
  • Kaplan. Kaplan SAT Subject Test World History, 2008-2009 Edition (Kaplan Sat Subject Test. World History). Grand Rapids: Kaplan, 2008.