Objectives:

  • Explain how the collapse of the German, Hapsburg, and Ottoman empires and the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe and the Middle East.
  • Explain how the League of Nations was founded and assess its promise and limitations as a vehicle for achieving lasting peace.
  • The student understands economic, social, and political transformations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 1920s and 1930s.
  • Explain how the mandate system altered patterns of European colonial rule in Africa and the Middle East.
  • Explain aims and policies of European colonial regimes in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia and assess the impact of colonial policies on indigenous societies and economies.
  • Analyze how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, as well as ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy, contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia.
  • The student understands the interplay between scientific or technological innovations and new patterns of social and cultural life between 1900 and 1940.

Interesting Article About WWI.

-Benjamin Byeon 9E (Got permission from Mr.Spivey.)




The Middle East Story-- Setting Up a Region



iraq_ethnic_religious_map.jpg
Did the European powers divide each country up into regions that would work best for the Middle East?


To understand the importance of the middle east in the modern world, we must look at her history. We just finished studying the foreign policy of Europe during WWI. We will now look at how the foreign policy of Europe was used on the Middle East. Before we begin we will start with some map work. Note: Ideas were taken from PBS.com education division.

Part 1
  • Students will examine the geographical and political background of the creation of the modern Middle East. Begin by asking the following questions:
    • How do you think borders of countries are generally created or decided?
    • Can you think of some ways in which geography is used to define boundary lines?
    • Why do you think these are so often used?
  • Pose the following hypothetical questions to students and discuss their answers:
    • If you were going to create a country anywhere in the world, how would you decide what territory to include?
    • What would you want to include in your country?
    • What would you want to exclude?
    • What are arguments for and against having only one ethnicity or one religion in the country?
    • How would you decide what natural resources you would need, such as water, or commodities like oil and natural gas?
    • Is access to land or sea trading routes important?
    • Do you need/want geographic barriers to aid in defense?
  • Divide the class into four groups. Assign a map to each group, and have students do research to draw the appropriate features on their maps. Some suggestions for research sources can be found in the RESOURCES section.
    • Group I will draw the outlines of the Ottoman Empire and surrounding polities before World War I using the map provided in class. Students should mark all political boundaries of states and administrative districts (where appropriate), political influence of outside powers, and capital and other major cities.
    • Group II will draw the new states of the Middle East created after World War I. Students should draw political boundaries of states and administrative districts (where appropriate), political influence and control by outside powers, and capital.
    • Group III will indicate the ethnicity, language, and religious composition of the Middle East, identifying concentrations of groups using a color or pattern code (with a key), pie chart, or other indicator. Groups should include, for example, Muslim Turks, Muslim Arabs, Christian Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Persians, Greeks, Jews, Berbers, Druze, etc. You map needs to have a key to identify features on your map.
    • Group IV will indicate the physical geography and natural resources of the Middle East. The group should identify the major rivers and other bodies of water, major mountain ranges, forests, arable land, deposits of oil, gas, and minerals, etc.

You will have a total of 20 minutes to complete this part of the assignment.

Part 2
Students will now break up into new groups and be experts for their maps that they just worked on. You will compare and contrast your maps by following these steps. Discuss questions when you get to map:
  • Beginning with the Ottoman (as the earliest). This will provide all students with an overview of the region.
  • Compare Ottoman map to after WWI map. What boundaries remained the same? Why? What political boundaries changed? Discuss the following questions:
    • How were the borders and foreign zones of influence or control determined?
    • What European power got control over which country?
  • Next, examine the Ethnic Groups and Religions and discuss how this information fits with the post-WWI boundaries.
    • Are there any apparent alignments between particular ethnic and religious groups and certain European powers?
    • What ethnic groups with concentrations of population in the Middle East did not end up with a nation-state? Why do you think this happened?
  • Lastly look at the Natural Resources map and answer these questions.
    • How does the distribution of natural resources coincide with post-WWI boundaries?
    • What countries are rich in water, oil, and other natural resources? Which are poor?
Part 3

1. Each group will get a new blank map. Your assignment is to imagine that you and members of your committee have convened in 1920 to redraw the political map of the Middle East to create politically stable and economically self-sufficient nations. Have them label their new countries with the name, capital, and form of government. On the back of the map, students should list the top five factors they used to decide where to draw borders, in order of their importance in making those decisions.
Groups will list 5 factors of why they redrew new borders in the Middle East the way they did.

HW: Read the following article. Also watch any of the videos that are on the website by using Quicktime.

What would be the result/response of creating new borders in the Middle east?


As we discussed early this semester, Europe colonized the areas of East Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia (India), South America and the South Pacific. Of all the regions colonized by Europe, the Middle East has arguably responded with the most bitterness and resentment to years of European imperialism. Why did the Middle East respond to the West in this way? The following short video will help us understand this better.

The Shifting Sands: A History of the Middle East Start at 5:10 "The Colonial Experience"

Key Points:

1. Islam has elements of universality within its belief system. Therefore, the region was united and did not see the use of dividing its people into nations. The culture of Islam flourished even though different rulers established power in the region. 5:30

2. Early Imperialist:

First Imperialist Hero: Alexander the Great (Hellenistic Age) 5:59
Second Christian Crusades for the Holy Land (Medieval Age)

3. Ottomans strike back and get lands in modern-day western Europe. 6:49

4. France was the first to start colonizing the Islamic world by taking countries in North Africa by the decision of Napoleon. Great Britain also got its hand on a couple of regions including Egypt and parts of the Middle East.

5. The major turning point was when the Ottomans decided to join the alliance system with Germany and Austria-Hungry during WWI. 7:25

6. After Britain and France win WWI, borders in the Middle East were created.

7. Europeans creatively drew the borders of Iraq and Kuwait. The remaining portion of the Ottoman Empire became modern-day Turkey.

8. Most of the Arab world is now influenced by the West in one way or another. This would create a clash of civilizations as the Industrial Age was meeting an area that wanted stay the way it was through the eyes of Islam.

9. Creation of the nation-state was a failure in the region as most people did not identify themselves with the new nation but instead with tribal factions. 8: 25

Search for Identity 8:30

Key Points:
1. Jews establish the Zionist movement as they saw no true future in Europe as many were prosecuted over the ages. The goal of this movement was to create a Jewish nation-state.

2. This movement became more of a reality with the creation of the Balfour Declaration of 1917. This was a British policy that would allow Jews to migrate into Palestine (which was under British rule) and share the lands with the local Palestinians. The document did allow religious freedom within the new Jewish state. Neither the Jews nor the Palestinians were happy with the declaration. 9:00

Balfour_declaration_unmarked.jpg
Balfour_declaration_unmarked.jpg



3. By 1936, 280,000 Jews migrated to Palestine, which caused a backlash from the Arabic population in the region. This will become important later on in the semester. 9:25-9:35 (Stop here and go forward, as it discusses the Holocaust which we will study later.)

  • What conflicts do you see potentially developing?
  • Why aren't the Islamic civilizations backing down to western demands?
  • Why didn't European ideas mix with Islamic ideas?


One of the most important aspects that one needs to understand from the video is that the Islamic world did not want to be influenced by the West or anyone else. We have studied the hardships of European imperialism on foreign lands, so no one can blame any region for these feelings, but what is very important to understand is that the Middle East has traditionally had contact with Europe. Why was it so simple for these two regions to interact? (Hint: Look at a map.)

Can this help us understand the frustration of the Middle East more? Also remember that at one point it was the Ottoman Empire (Islamic Empire) that was spreading its influence throughout eastern Europe. So I guess what I am trying to say in a nut shell is that historically, Europe and the Middle East have a history on not seeing eye-to-eye on many issues. Now, let's look at the response of the Ottoman Empire after WWI when Europe had taken over Ottomans lands.

Through the primary source what happens to the Ottoman Empire?

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: Turkish youth speech (1927)

Speech / Narrative

President of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk introduced a series of reforms to modernize his new country after the fall of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. In this 1927 speech, Ataturk garners support for his regime among the Turkish youth.

Turkish Youth!

Your first duty is forever to preserve and to defend the Turkish Independence and the Turkish Republic.

This is the very foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malevolent people at home and abroad who will wish to deprive you of this treasure. If some day you are compelled to defend your independence and your Republic, you must not tarry to weigh the possibilities and circumstances of the situation before taking up your duty. These possibilities and circumstances may turn out to be extremely unfavourable. The enemies conspiring against your independence and your republic may have behind them a victory unprecedented in the annals of the world. It may be that, by violence and ruse, all the fortresses of your beloved fatherland may be captured, all its shipyards occupied, all its armies dispersed and every part of the country invaded. And sadder and graver than all these circumstances, those who hold power within the country may be in error, misguided and may even be traitors. Furthermore, they may identify their personal interests with the political designs of the invaders. The country may be impoverished, ruined and exhausted.

Youth of Turkey's future, even in such circumstances it is your duty to save the Turkish Independence and Republic. The strength you need is already imbedded in your noble blood.

-Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: Turkish youth speech (1927)." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 27 Mar. 2008 <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.


Movements like this spread all over the Middle East including Egypt, Arabia (modern day Saudi Arabia) and Persia (modern day Iran). In essence, new nationalistic ideologies were sweeping over the region. Each country defined their nations in different ways. For example, Turkey and Iran tried to westernize/modernize themselves, while Saudi Arabia saw itself as the leader of the Islamic world and tried to stay true to its ancestry. Clearly, the nationalistic movements in the Middle East would contribute to our modern world history in ways that would change how we look at this world forever. Now, let's take a quick look at Saudi Arabi's history in the early 20th century:

"In the 15th century, a new dynasty, the Sauds (also known as Saudis), emerged. In the middle of the 18th century, the Saudis formed an alliance with fundamentalist religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Seeking a return to the ways of early Islam, the Saudi armies (consisting primarily of Bedouins) supported Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and gradually conquered the Najd region. They also expanded into parts of Syria and Iraq. The Ottomans tried to repress the fundamentalists by dispatching Egypt's Muhammad Ali Pasha to attack them in 1811 and again in 1838. The fundamentalists managed to retain control of the country, but in 1890, the Rashid clan of Turkey conquered Riyadh, which had become the capital of the Saud dynasty. Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud reconquered Riyadh in 1902, and after ousting the Rashids, he declared himself ruler of Najd. He gradually expanded his domain by taking control of the central region and the coast along Al Hasa by 1914. Husayn ibn Ali controlled Hejaz at that time and still recognized the domination of the Ottoman Empire. In 1916, he was encouraged by Great Britain to turn on the Turks, and he declared himself king of the region. Ibn Saud took exception when Husayn declared himself caliph of Islam in 1924, so he invaded Hejaz. By 1926, he controlled Jeddah and Mecca, and in 1932, Ibn Saud merged Najd and Hejaz to create the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1936, and after World War II, intensive drilling began, which gave the nation its vast wealth. Ibn Saud used the money to initiate a modernization program that focused on public health, irrigation, manufacturing, and agriculture. Over time, the king fostered ties with other Middle Eastern nations as well as the United States and Great Britain. When Israel was founded in 1948, Saudi Arabia opposed the action but did not play a major role in the quest to terminate its existence."

-Saudi Arabia." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 27 Mar. 2008 <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.



Throughout World History, this region has become a central global focal point. Why?


Establishment of Israel





Obama Speech in Cairo; June 4, 2009






Homework:
1. Read 405-408 in your text books, Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction
2. Bring textbook for next class.

Indian Nationalism


Review what we know:
1. Review what we can remember from Britain's Imperialism of India?
2. What was India promised after WWI? Why didn't this promise come true?
3. If you were an Indian coming back from WWI how would you feel?

gandhi123.jpg
How could such a small man make such a big impact.

We will now look at how India got its independence. To understand the Indian nationalism movements, we must first look at its leader. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1860-1948) would change the way that historians (and human beings as a whole) would think of revolution. His thoughts on spiritual growth, human ethics, and civil disobediences would help develop India's image in the modern day.

1. To start off lets listen to a live broadcast of Gandhi talking about "a higher power." Ask students to share what they think Gandhi's definition of a higher power is and how it motivates him/us. 8-10 mins.

http://gandhiking.ning.com/video/mahatma-gandhi-god-is
Has the speech written just underneath the video. ---Contribution by Britney Byun

Mr. Spivey, Make sure students use earphones. Playing to whole class may not work. It will be more effective if listened to individually. It's a speech about spirituality. They need to listen carefully and concentrate.

2. You have read the text book now spend some time creating a Cause, Course and Consequence chart in small groups. The C-C-C Chart should focus on India's Independence Movement. We will share/discuss the chart as a class. (15 minutes)

external image msword.png Causes-Course-Consequences.doc

3. Book Share: Define civil disobedience. Ask students for modern-day examples. Use primary sources from Halsall's site (press Apple+F for the find option and then type in Gandhi to easily find sources). Ask students to find one example of civil disobedience and how Gandhi used it to promote independence. Students will make one-minute presentations to the class. Time limit is 25 minutes, 10-15 mins. research and 10 mins. to present all ideas.

4. Watch sections of the Academy Award winning move Gandhi (1982).

A. Primary Sources Footage: Gandhi Talks
B. Sections from the Movie:

1. First Displays of Civil Disobedience in S. Africa (Chapter 3) 0:11:11-0:16:20
2. New Laws of S. Africa Against Indians 0:25:54-0:31:13
3. Law is Repealed 0:38:00-0:41:13
4. Return to India (Chapter 8) 1:03:08-1:07:00
5. Amristar Massacre (Chapter 11) 1:24:04-1:31:00
6. Salt March (Chapter 18) 2:06:00-2:11:02
7. The Final March (Chapter 19) 2:14:25 - 2:19:00

Homework: Read p. 421-426 in MWH.