Hannah Choi (9A)

What are Social and Economical Effects of AIDS, and Why is Education Important to These Effects?

TABLE OF CONTENTS


62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifAIDS Statistics
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifWhat is AIDS?
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifSymptoms
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifThe First Cases of AIDS
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifWhat are Economical Effects of AIDS?
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifWhat are Social Effects of AIDS?
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifAIDS Prevention Programs - Why are They Needed?
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifVideos
62536213.H0DK9ufR.SpinningStar.gifBibliography

AIDS Statistics


Worldwide Statistics
5323-716496.jpg
34 million people live with HIV/AIDS
2 million of 33 million people are under the age 15
Every day 7397 people contract HIV - 308 every hour
More than 25 million people died of AIDS since 1981
Every 9.5 minutes, a person in the United States is infected by HIV


Global Trend
Picture_13.png
The graph on the left shows the number of people with HIV in the world. By examining the graph, we can see that the number of people with HIV is increasing every year. There were about 8 million people with HIV in 1990, but in 2007, it has increased to 33 million people. This means that the number of people with AIDS is also increasing every year, increasing the global death rate. Now, by analyzing, we can see that AIDS is a deadly disease that brings negative effects to the world, and we can also see that the problem of AIDS should be solved as soon as possible. We know that this problem would not be solved soon, but to figure out the way to improve the situation, firstly, let's get a general knowledge about AIDS. Secondly, we should examine the social and economical effects of AIDS in the world. Then lastly, let's find out what impacts education can have on these effects.


What is AIDS?


hiv-aids-deaths.jpg
This is a map that shows the number of HIV/AIDS deaths in the world.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a transmissible disease of the immune system caused by HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus. People with HIV don't necessarily have AIDS, but they develop AIDS if HIV enters their body and severely damage their natural defenses against diseases. When a person becomes infected by HIV, the virus attacks that person's immune system by attaching on to a T-cell, a group of white blood cells that play a central role in cell-mediated immunity, then becoming a part of that person's DNA that forces the body to produce viruses that kill T-cells. If HIV has killed too many T-cells, that a person has less T-cells than he/she is expected to have to successfully protect themselves from diseases,that person will develop AIDS. Currently, AIDS is one of the biggest problems facing the world today. As you can see by referring to the map on the left, over 34 million people have HIV/AIDS worldwide, and the number of deaths is increasing every year as stated above. It is spreading rapidly throughout the world, killing millions of people.


Symptoms and medications


symptoms-of-aids-thumb.pngSince AIDS causes the immune system to not successfully accomplish its job, AIDS makes people no longer healthy enough to fight off intruding viruses and bacteria, and therefore, more vulnerable to infections
HIVmeds.jpg
This is HIV medication that people take per day.
and cancers. People with AIDS will not be ableto fight the germs that normal people can usually fight off with a healthy immune system. For example, if they simply get a cold that normal people often get, they will suffer as if a normal person suffers from a heavy fever. Symptoms of AIDS include extreme fatigue, rapid weight loss, persistent diarrhea, high fever, and swollen glands in the neck, armpits, or groin. Unfortunately, there is no cure for AIDS. Still, there is an antiretroviral medication, which is very expensive but has the ability to slow the progression of AIDS and keep some people healthy for many years. However, because it is a powerful medication to take, it is very painful to AIDS patients and will harm their health even more. The drug has many side effects. The five most common side effects are diarrhea, nausea, neuropathy, headache, and tiredness. The drugs can cure some people, but can cause harms to more people. The only way to be safe from AIDS is to reduce risky behavior to prevent AIDS.

The First Cases of AIDS


First Case of AIDS
The first recognized case of AIDS occurred in the United States in early 1980s. Some gay men in California and New York suddenly began to develop cancers and rare infections that seemed resistant to any treatment. At that time, no one knew what AIDS was, but they knew that those men were suffering from a common syndrome.

Jonathan Mann stated..
" The dominant feature of this first period was silence, for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was unknown and transmission was not accompanies by signs or symptoms salient enough to be noticed. While rare, sporadic case reports of AIDS and sero-archaeological studies have documented human infections with HIV prior to 1970, available data suggest that the current pandemic started in the mid- to late 1970s. By 1980, HIV had spread to at least five continents (North America, South America, Europe, Africa and Australia), During this period of silence, spread was unchecked by awareness of any preventive action and approximately 100,000-300,000 persons may have been infected."

First Report of AIDS by MMWR
On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of five cases of PCP among healthy men in Los Angelus, which was actually cases of AIDS.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/june_5.htm
This website contains the edited version of the report. 18 months after the report was published, epidemiologists prepared MMWR reports that identified all risks factors of AIDS. Now, MMWR has more than 400 reports on AIDS that remains as a primary source.

The Spokesman-Review ( Nov 30, 1983 )
Picture_12.png Picture_14.png












This article, from The Spokesman-Review, introduces one of the first cases of AIDS in the United States to the readers.







What are Economical Effects of AIDS?


fig1-2.gifIllness, disability, and death caused by having HIV/AIDS affect population at many different levels in many different ways. HIV/AIDS is causing conflicts by causing negative impacts on a state's economy. The spread of HIV/AIDS itself doesn't cause a conflict, but it contributes to economic instability and maybe the failure of a state. AIDS is having economic consequences in countries with high HIV prevalence rates, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There, HIV/AIDS is destroying all levels of economy. The UNDP(United Nations Development Programme) estimated that AIDS lowers the income of the households with AIDS patients by 80 %. If a member of a family is infected, that person will require medical care, special diets, and many other special cares, which require lots of money. And if that person is unfortunately the breadwinner of the family, then there will be no income for the family due to the lost labor force. More spending and less income. This is how AIDS affects a household. We can predict that this will eventually lead to the corruption of national economies. AIDS will affect national economic growth, because families, having less money to spend, will save their money to care about the AIDS patient, reducing investment, affecting the market, and also another reason is because some useful people in the society will die out due to AIDS. Because AIDS is transmitted by sexual behavior, AIDS strike people in their economically most productive years. AIDS lowers productivity and produces labor shortages causing the claim of 26% of the agricultural work force in African Nations.

What are Social Effects of AIDS


orphan.jpg
This girl is an orphan in Africa. Her parent died of AIDS
AIDS is one of the most horrible diseases, destroying families and communities throughout the world. This tragedy not only affects families but also workplaces, schools, health systems, and governments. AIDS threatens the social fabric, a social geography such as class, ethic, and education, of some nations, destroy families as well the educational system. AIDS has a kind of chain reaction that creates bad impacts on the society. People with HIV/AIDS are prone to developing other infections, because their immune system is suppressed. Therefore, there is a high mortality rate and lower life expectancy. Due to the deaths of many people, the structure of population will be altered. If there is an increase in mortality rate in 20~40 age group, many children will become orphans. It has become common to become an orphan because of AIDS, creating a generation of orphans. There will be also population movement due to people migrating to seek health care or drugs. For example, some rich people in sub-Saharan Africa will migrate to developed countries to get medications. Also, due to the absent workers that are either sick, dead, or migrating, the business and agriculture are suffering because of the lack of labor forces. AIDS is becoming a global epidemic, affecting many things around the world.

AIDS Prevention Programs - Why are They Needed?


aidsisreal.jpg
This is on a road in Uganda
By learning social and economic effects of AIDS, we found out that prevention of AIDS is crucial in order not to destroy our families, communities, and nations. AIDS is one of the biggest challenges in the world. However, we can overcome AIDS for sure by improving safer behaviors by giving education on AIDS, getting tested on HIV, and raising awareness. If we believe and communicate this with people, hivtransmission-thumb.jpgwe can change the world. You might think that education is not necessary since you and people around you have no chance of getting AIDS. However, people with AIDS can be your co-workers, your friends, your family, or you. AIDS is transmitted through unprotected sex, sharing needles, and share of blood with a infected person. Also AIDS can be transmitted from infected mother to fetus.
1. By education, you will learn not to take risky behaviors that will cause these causes of AIDS, since you know what they are after getting educated. The dread of AIDS, or AFRAIDS (Acute Fear Regarding AIDS), can be extremely frightening to people. AIDS is, after all, a deadly disease with horrible infections but no cure. The idea of AIDS forces people to confront their own mortality. After education, you will also be able to fix these biased perspectives on AIDS. You will be able to understand what HIV/AIDS is, your responsibilities, and the steps that you can take for you and people around you to stay HIV negative.
kaposissarcoma-thumb.jpg2. You might have AIDS and not notice it, since the symptoms appear, on average, after 10 years after being infected. Support-AIDS-2.gifAnother way to prevent AIDS other than education is getting tested for HIV. You can prevent AIDS by testing at STD clinic, government-funded HIV testing site, hospital, or doctor's office. There is also an HIV home-testing kit. Early testing and knowing you current status, whether you are HIV negative or positive, can prolong your lives, improve the economic growth, and social fabrics.
3. People have tried to increase awareness of AIDS. These days, people use media to increase awareness. For example, there is a drama called "Thank You," which talked about how people abandon a girl with AIDS after knowing that she has AIDS. Also, look at the picture above saying "AIDS IS REAL!" This will be a way, not using media, to improve awareness of AIDS.


http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5804a1.htm?s_cid=rr5804a1_e
This website has a report presented by MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports), that tells us about the prevention and treatment for HIV.

Videos




This video shows the process of human immunodeficiency virus, destroying the immune system. First, the HIV goes into the immune system, attaches on a T-cell, or the immune cell, and turns the DNA into a viral DNA that produces multiple copies of viruses that kills the T-cells. This process eventually leads HIV to turn into AIDS.

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xw_A88jlp2U)



This is a video clip of Mrs. Clare Kalkwarf giving people an easy-to-understand education about AIDS. She uses many different tactics, such as using the hippo diagram, to show people what AIDS is and why we should avoid it.

(http://bbg.org.za/video/aids_education.htm)


Bibliography


Information

BOOKS
  • AIDS: Opposing Viewpoints . Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
  • Jussim, Daniel. AIDS & HIV: Risky Business (Teen Issues) . Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 1997.


WEBSITES


Primary Sources

Quotes
  • Mann J. M (1989) 'AIDS: A worldwide pandemic', in Current topics in AIDS, volume 2, edited by Gottlieb M.S., Jeffries D.J., Mildvan D., Pinching, A.J., Quinn T.C., John Wiley&Sons

Pictures

Videos